The Chinese Deathscape

Grave Reform in Modern China


The following documents the original digital publication Chinese Deathscape: Grave Reform in Modern China edited by Thomas S. Mullaney (Stanford University Press, 2019). DOI: 0.21627/2019cd ISBN: 9781503603349

Download video transcript.


In the past decade alone, more than ten million corpses have been exhumed and reburied across the Chinese landscape. The campaign has transformed China’s graveyards into sites of acute personal, social, political, and economic contestation. In this digital volume, three historians of China—Jeffrey Snyder-Reinke, Christian Henriot, and Thomas S. Mullaney—chart the history of China’s rapidly shifting deathscape. The essays unfold within a custom-designed “augmented narrative” platform built by David McClure and his colleagues at Stanford University.

Each essay grapples with a different dimension of grave relocation and burial reform in China over the past three centuries: from the phenomenon of “baby towers” in the Lower Yangzi region of late imperial China, examined by Snyder-Reinke; to the histories of death in the city of Shanghai, examined by Henriot; and finally to the history of grave relocation during the contemporary period, examined by Mullaney, when both its scale and tempo increased dramatically. Rounding off these historical analyses, a colophon by platform developers David McClure and Glen Worthey speaks to new reading methodologies emerging from a format in which text and map move in concert to advance historical argumentation.

The project was originally published March 2019 at It is the fourth publication of Stanford University Press’s initiative for the publication of interactive scholarly works funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Technical Requirements

At time of publication (2018), an optimal user experience requires an internet connection, a browser contemporary to Chrome 80, Firefox 74, Safari 13, Opera 66, or Internet Explorer 11, and a screen capable of showing two side-by-side views, one for text and one for the map (mobile screens not recommended). To access the downloadable data, a program capable of reading a .csv file is required (Excel, text editor, etc.). For local use (not connected to the internet), the project can be recompiled and deployed using the archived materials in the Stanford Digital Repository. Local use requires setting up a server capable of processing a Ruby on Rails application with a PostgreSQL database (see below).

At the time of publication, The Chinese Deathscape: Grave Reform in Modern China project required a server running Ruby on Rails and a PostgreSQL database with the PostGIS extensions. It performs best in standard desktop browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer) and standard screen sizes/resolutions, with a broadband internet connection capable of loading significant quantities of images.

Technical Specifications

This project consists of a PostgreSQL database and an application built using Ruby on Rails. Both the database (ownerless version) and application code repository are included in the digital repository collection. The application repo package contains instructions to deploy the application to a server configured with the following dependencies:

The main backend technologies used were Ruby 2.3.4, Rails 4.2.8, PostgreSQL 9.4, and PostGIS 2.3; the primary static frontend technologies were Bootstrap 3.3.6, React.js 0.14.9, Redux 2.0.0, D3.js 3.5.16, JQuery 3.3.1, and Leaflet.js 1.0.3. The site serves HTML5 and CSS3 web content and images in PNG and JPEG format. External dependencies include Typekit fonts and basemap tiles provided via ESRI’s ArcGIS Online, OpenStreetMap, and Wikimedia Cloud Services.

User Experience

publication cover page
Figure 1

From the cover page (see fig. 1), a reader enters the table of contents, which provides access to contextual material (data, people, about, etc.) and essays by various scholars. Most of your interaction with The Chinese Deathscape will be with the individual essays. The essays are housed within an augmented narrative platform, in which you will find a map on the right side of the screen (along with other functionalities to be introduced below) and the essay on the left (see fig. 2).

screenshot of essay page
Figure 2

When reading the essays, anytime you see an underlined passage of text, you can click on it to reposition the map to the location relevant to the narrative (see fig. 3).

closeup of underlined text
Figure 3

You can turn map options on or off at any time by toggling the button on the top left of the map (see fig. 4). This opens a dropdown menu featuring a variety of demographic and historic map layers (see fig. 5). You can choose different combinations of base layers, demographic overlays, or historic overlays, and then cancel them by clicking the gray X. Please note that, depending on your location and zoom level in the map, not every historic map or demographic overlay will show up clearly.

closeup of map option toggles
Figure 4

closeup of layer dropdowns
Figure 5

At any time you can return to the overview map by clicking on the reset sign on the top right (see fig. 6).

reset button
Figure 6

Each grave relocation event is assigned a circle of a different diameter. The map key on the bottom left explains what these diameters mean (see fig. 7). In certain cases, the number of relocated graves is unknown. In those cases, the relocation is assigned a smaller dark-blue circle.

closeup of circle key
Figure 7

In addition to clicking on the text, you can interact with the map directly by clicking on the grave relocation circles. When you click on a circle (see fig. 8), a window opens containing further information about this relocation (see fig. 9).

closeup of circle on map
Figure 8

closeup of data pop-up
Figure 9

Because many grave relocations have taken place in geographic proximity to one another, you will often find overlapping circles (see fig. 10). When you click on a collection of overlapping circles, the pop-up menu will include a list of graves nearby, listing other relocations in that geographic area (see fig. 11).

overlapping circles
Figure 10

data pop-up with Graves-nearby section
Figure 11

You can also navigate the dataset using the time slider, which can be turned on using the toggle on the top left of the map (see fig. 12). There are two ways to interact with the time slider. To filter the data according to a specific time span, simply click and drag your mouse on the time slider to indicate whatever date range you wish (see fig. 13). Once you have created a time range, you can also animate the map by clicking and dragging the time range left or right. At any time, you can adjust the start and end dates of your filter by adjusting the time slider handles.

closeup of time slider toggles
Figure 12

closeup of time slider
Figure 13

If you would like to cite or share a specific map state (i.e., a geographic location, along with specific demographic layers, historic maps, or other features), click on the bookmark icon on the top right (see fig. 14). When you click on this icon, the URL in your browser will update to include all relevant information of that map state. Simply highlight and copy this URL, which you can then send or cite. Anyone who navigates to that URL will find the same map state as when you clicked the citation icon.

bookmark button
Figure 14

A web archive, which approximates the original user experience of this project, can be accessed via the Archive link on the project’s cover page at or downloaded from the Stanford Digital Repository collection at

Technical Structure

The data pertaining to geographic places, regions, and map resources that is needed to produce the interactive map and timeline visualizations for the site is stored in tables and views in the Postgres database. Most of the text contents of the three main essays, as well as the project’s front and back matter, also are stored the database in HTML markup format in the narratives table. The front-end code queries data from these tables dynamically when building a page to present to the reader’s web browser.

More generally, the final essay in the project—“Colophon: Grapl, the Graves ‘Platform’”—provides a discussion of the organizational philosophy of the project and the considerations that influenced its infrastructure and interfaces. Fundamentally, the project was organized around three scholarly research inquiries by three scholars of modern China and Chinese history; the project site presents the products of each study as a digital essay with integrated map and timeline visualizations, data overlays, and images. The project also makes available the underlying dataset (primarily regarding gravesite locations) for each essay as a downloadable file with comma-separated data fields.


Thomas S. Mullaney, Volume Editor and Professor of Chinese History at Stanford University
Christian Henriot, Contributor and Professor of Modern Chinese History at Aix-Marseille Université
David McClure, Contributor, lead application designer and developer, and Ph.D. student at the MIT Media Lab
Jeffrey Snyder-Reinke, Contributor and Professor of History at the College of Idaho
Glen Worthey, Contributor and Digital Humanities Librarian in the Stanford University Libraries

The following individuals and organizations helped make The Chinese Deathscape a reality:

Stanford University Student Researchers:
  • Emily Cao
  • Michael Carter
  • Xinguo Chen
  • Jiabo Feng
  • Krista Fryauff
  • Grace Geng
  • Mona Huang
  • Vivian Kong
  • Jocelyn Lee
  • Karen Lee
  • Jose Recinto
  • Rahul Singreddy
  • Max Wen
  • Chuan Xu
  • Carina Zeng
  • Carina Zhang
Stanford University Press:
  • Michael Keller
  • Alan Harvey
  • Friederike Sundaram
  • Jasmine Mulliken
Center for Spatial and Textual Analysis:
  • Celena Allen
  • Amanda Bergado
  • Catherine Nicole Coleman
  • Zephyr Frank
  • Amita Kumar
  • Ranjeshni Sharma
  • Erik Steiner
  • Elaine Treharne
  • Gabriel Wolfenstein
Stanford University Libraries’ Center for Interdisciplinary and Digital Research:
  • Vijoy Abraham
  • Scott Bailey
  • Peter Broadwell
  • Karl Grossner
  • Jason Heppler
  • David McClure
  • Elijah Meeks
  • Jack Reed
  • Javier de la Rosa
  • Stuart Snydman
  • Drew Winget
  • Glen Worthey
Granting Institutions:
  • Stanford University Freeman Spogli Institute (FSI) China Fund
  • Stanford University Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education
  • Roberta Bowman Denning Initiative in the Digital Humanities
Colleagues, Fellow Travelers, and Reviewers:
  • Nicole Barnes
  • Peter Carroll
  • Kimberly Durante
  • James Evans
  • Charles Fosselman
  • Tom Foster
  • Gabrielle Karampelas
  • Jaroslaw Kapuscinski
  • Michael Keller
  • George Philip LeBourdais
  • Jin Li
  • Huwy-min Lucia Liu
  • Stace Maples
  • Rebecca Nedostup
  • Michael Puett
  • Julie Sweetkind-Singer
  • Roshanna Sylvester
  • Ruth Toulson
  • Maria Van Buiten
  • Robert Weller
  • Caroline Winterer
  • Zhaohui Xue
Family and Friends:
  • Chiara Vernari
  • Orfeo Vernari Mullaney
  • Alexander Cook
  • Annelise Heinz

Bibliography/References (Compiled from Individual Essay Notes)

“A Baby Tomb in China.” Ballou’s Monthly Magazine (January-June 1870), 109. (image)

Raised graves outside of Tianjin city, ca.  1895.,_ca_1895_(CHANDLESS_48).jpeg. (image)

Bayard Taylor, A Visit to India, China, and Japan in the Year 1853 (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1855), 323–324.

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Mary Isabella Bryson, Child Life in Chinese Homes (London: Religious Tract Society, 1885), 17.

London and China Telegraph, January 11, 1869, 25.

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Michelle King, Between Life and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014)

Charlotte Furth, “From Birth to Birth: The Growing Body in Chinese Medicine,” in Anne Behnke Kinney, ed., Chinese Views of Childhood (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1995), 180–181.

Mary Brown Bullock and Bridie Andrews, Medical Transitions in Twentieth-Century China (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014), 56.

Mark Elliott, Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World (New York: Longman, 2009), 47.

Yili zhengzhu 儀禮鄭注, Sibu beiyao ed., (Taipei: Chung Hwa Book Company, 1984), vol. 2, 11:14a.

Patricia Ebrey, Chu Hsi’s Family Rituals: A Twelfth-Century Manual for the Performance of Cappings, Weddings, Funerals, and Ancestral Rites (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), 95–96.

Susan Naquin, “Funerals in North China: Uniformity and Variation,” in James L. Watson and Evelyn S. Rawski, ed., Death Ritual in Late Imperial and Modern China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 46.

J. M. de Groot, Religious System of China, Book 1 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1894).

David F. Lancy, “Babies Aren’t Persons: A Survey of Delayed Personhood,” in Hiltrud Otto and Heidi Keller, ed., Different Faces of Attachment: Cultural Variations on a Universal Human Need (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 87.

Chinese Text Project, “Tan Gong I 檀弓上”, verse 12, trans. James Legge.

Wang Sisheng, “Proclamation Prohibiting the Discarding of Infant Remains” 禁止拋棄嬰骸示, Shuozhou zhi 朔州志, (1735 ed.), j.12, 22b (ZFZK, 723). (page numbers referenced according to the pagination found in the Zhongguo fangzhi ku 中國方志庫 (hereafter ZFZK).

Ibid., j.12, 23a (ZFZK, 724), trans. James Legge, “Tan Gong II 檀弓下”, verse 203.

Liu Shiming, “Proclamation to Collect and Bury the Remains of Infants” 收埋嬰兒骸骨示, Shuozhou zhi 朔州志, (1735 ed.), j.12, 21b (ZFZK, 721).

Ji Shilin, “An Exhortation to Bury Infants 勸埋嬰兒說,” Xu Gaoping xianzhi (1880 ed.), j.15, 30b (ZFZK, 532).

Fabian Drixler, Mabiki: Infanticide and Population Growth in Eastern Japan, 1660–1950 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), 139.

Zhaocheng xianzhi 趙城縣志 (1760 ed.), j.22, n.p. (ZKFK, 126).

Fenyang xianzhi 汾陽縣志 (1851 ed.), j.13, 48a (ZFZK, 1175).

Ji, “An Exhortation to Bury Infants,” j.15, 31a (ZFZK, 534).

Wang, “Proclamation Prohibiting the Discarding of Infant Remains,” j.12, 23a (ZFZK, 724).

Yongping fuzhi 永平府志 (1711 ed.), j.5, n.p. (ZFZK, 352).

Zhaocheng xianzhi 趙城縣志 (QL25 ed.), j.22, n.p. (ZKFK, 1266).

Wuyang xianzhi 舞陽縣志 (1835 ed.), j.6, 6b (ZFZK, 261).

Yiyang xianzhi 伊陽縣志 (1838 ed.), j.1, n.p. (ZFZK, 115).

Yanchang xianzhi 延長縣志 (undated Qianlong manuscript), n.p. (ZFZK, 303).

Michael Simpson Culbertson, Darkness in the Flowery Land (New York: Scribner, 1857), 167.

Marjorie Topley, “Cosmic Antagonisms: A Mother-Child Syndrome,” in Arthur P. Wolf, ed., Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1974), 246.

David E. Pollard, Real Life in China at the Height of Empire (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2014), 101.

Wang Qingren, trans. by Yuhsin Chung, Herman Oving, and Simon Becker, Yi Lin Gai Cuo: Correcting the Errors in the Forest of Medicine (Boulder, CO: Blue Poppy Press, 2007), 7.

Timothy Brook, Jerome Bourgon, and Gregory Blue, Death by a Thousand Cuts (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), 14–15.

Qingpu xianzhi 青浦縣志 (1878 ed.), j.20, 24b (ZFZK, 1323).

Ji, “An Exhortation to Bury Infants,” j.15, 31a (ZFZK, 534).

Henrietta Harrison, “Penny for the Little Chinese: The French Holy Childhood Association in China, 1843–1951,” American Historical Review 13.1 (2008), 82.

Donald Harper, “Spellbinding,” in Donald Lopez Jr., ed., Chinese Religions in Practice (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), 248–249.

Marc Moskowitz, The Haunting Fetus: Abortion, Sexuality, and the Spirit World in Taiwan (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2001), 164.

Liu, “Proclamation to Collect and Bury the Remains of Infants,” j.12, 22a (ZFZK, 722).

Ji, “An Exhortation to Bury Infants,” j.15, 32a (ZFZK, 536).

Chinese Text Project, “Yue Ling 月令,” verse 7, trans. James Legge.

Jeff Snyder-Reinke, Dry Spells: State Rainmaking and Local Governance in Late Imperial China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center), chap. 2.

Joanna Handlin Smith, The Art of Doing Good: Charity in Late Ming China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), 221–222.

Liang Qizi, Shishan yu jiaohua: Ming Qing de cishan zhuzhi 施善与教化: 明清的慈善组织 (Shijiazhuang, Hebei: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe), 278-306.

Linyou xianzhi 麟遊縣志 (1708 ed.), j.3:33, 3a–5a (ZFZK, 124-128).

Xiaoyi xianzhi 孝義縣志 (1770 ed.), j.1, 14a (ZFZK, 316).

Ningxiang xianzhi 寧鄉縣志 (1941 ed.), 先民傳二十四, 清, 5b (ZFZK, 2574).

Cui Xu, “Draft for Establishing Infant Cemeteries 擬立嬰兒冢文” Yongji xianzhi 永濟縣志 (1886 ed.), j.24, 42b-43a (ZFZK, 2105-2106).

Xuzuan Jiangning fuzhi 續纂江寧府志 (1880 ed.), j.9.1, 26a (ZFZK, 1152).

Charles Muller’s Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, “.”

Badong xianzhi (Guangxu ed.), j.16, n.p. (ZFZK, 216).

Xugou xianzhi 徐溝縣志, j.4, 16a (ZFZK, 106), and the two towers in Hequ xianzhi 河曲縣志 (1872 ed.), j.6, 62b (ZFZK, 747).

Haining zhouzhi 海寧州志 (1922 ed.), j.6, n.p. (ZFZK, 738).

De Groot, Religious System of China, Book 1, 1388.

Fenghua xianzhi 奉化縣志 (1877 ed.), j.3, 26a (ZFZK, 205)

Shanghai xianzhi 上海縣志 (1918 ed.), j.2, n.p. (ZFZK, 199).

Chongxiu Jiashan xianzhi 重修嘉善縣志 (1892 ed.), j.5, n.p. (ZFZK, 406).

Fan Hongxiang 范洪祥, “Xinfeng’s Bone Burial Tower” 新豐瘞骨塔Jiaxing gushi 嘉興故事.

De Groot, Religious System of China, Book 1, 1387.

 A "Baby Tower," Ningpo, c.1870.

Norman Kutcher, Mourning in Late Imperial China: Filial Piety and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 144-148.

Mark Elliott, The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001), 264.

Jeff Snyder-Reinke, “Afterlives of the Dead: Uncovering Graves and Mishandling Corpses in Nineteenth-Century China,” Frontiers of History in China 11.1 (2016): 1-20.

Liu Shufen, “Death and the Degeneration of Life: Exposure of the Corpse in Medieval Chinese Buddhism,” Journal of Chinese Religions 28.1 (2000): 6.

Hsiung Ping-chen, A Tender Voyage: Children and Childhood in Late Imperial China (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005), 195-204.

Yongping fuzhi 永平府志 (1879 ed.), j.43, n.p. (ZFZK, 3134).

Lee Jackson, Dirty Old London: The Victorian Fight against Filth (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), 132.

LeRoy Ashby, Endangered Children: Dependency, Neglect, and Abuse in American History (New York: Twayne, 1997), 34. See also Julie Miller, Abandoned: Foundlings in Nineteenth-Century New York City (New York: New York University Press, 2008).

Ginger Frost, Victorian Childhoods (New York: Praeger, 2009), 157-158.

Jackson, Dirty Old London, 105.

Sarah Tarlow, “Landscapes of Memory: The Nineteenth Century Garden Cemetery,” European Journal of Archaeology 3.2 (2000): 217-239.

Qingpu xian xuzhi 青浦縣續志 (1934 ed.), j.24, 6a (ZFZK, 849).

Photograph of Pootung Cemetery, Shanghai, 1934. The China Press, March 28, 1934.

Charles B. Maybon and Jean Fredet, Histoire de la Concession française de Changhai (Paris: Librairie Plon, 1929), ii.

Granville G. Loch, The Closing Events of the Campaign in China: The Operations in the Yang-Tze-Kiang and Treaty of Nanking (London: J. Murray, 1843), 44.

Virtual Shanghai, pictures ID 34479 and ID 34480,

Maybon and Fredet, Histoire de la Concession française de Changhai, 286 and 369.

Bryna Goodman, Native Place, City, and Nation Regional Networks and Identities in Shanghai, 1853–1937 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 159–69.

Land Regulations and Bye Laws for the Foreign Settlement of Shanghai, Art. III, Anatol M. Kotenev, Shanghai: Its Mixed Court and Council; Material Relating to the History of the Shanghai Municipal Council and the History, Practice and Statistics of the International Mixed Court : Chinese Modern Law and Shanghai Municipal Land Regulations and Bye-Laws Governing the Life in the Settlement (Shanghai: North-China Daily News & Herald, 1925), 588 and 563.

Chen Li 陈琍, “Jindai Shanghai chengxiang jingguan bianqian (1843–1863): Ji yu daoqi dang’an de shuju chuli yu fenxi 近代上海城乡景观变迁 (1843-1863): 基于道契档案的数据处理与分析” (PhD diss., Fudan University, 2010), 119–20.

Maybon and Fredet, Histoire de la Concession française de Changhai.

Goodman, Native Place, City, and Nation Regional Networks, 159–69.

Chen, “Jindai Shanghai chengxiang jingguan bianqian (1843–1863),” 123–27.

Bryna Goodman, “The Locality as Microcosm of the Nation? Native Place Networks and Early Urban Nationalism in China,” Modern China 21.4 (1995): 391–94.

Shenbao, January 31, 1874, March 11, 1926, March 19, 1926, June 12, 1926, March 27, 1873, April 12, 1922, April 25, 1922, May 2, 1922, May 6, 1922, May 8, 1922, May 11, 1922, May 12, 1922, May 13, 1922, June 4, 1922, June 6, 1922, June 10, 1922, June 11, 1922, November 16, 1914, October 12, 1920, April 9, 1915, December 10, 1917, September 16, 1912, September 20, 1912, December 9, 1903, February 19, 1904, January 13, 1925, December 28, 1932, December 9, 1903, June 4, 1934, August 3, 1872 (Ximen), August 10, 1879 (behind Siming), April 5, 1896 (Gaochangmiao), April 1, 1899 (Jiang’ansi), April 23, 1900 (Laobeimen), September 13, 1920 (Kansuh Road), October 17, 1920 (Cuiwei’an), November 5, 1931 (Connaught Road), January 11, 1932 (Jumen Road), June 5, 1933 (Chezhan Road), July 4, 1933 (Damuqiao), November 6, 1933 (Panjiaqiao), June 22, 1934 (North Chekiang Road), September 7, 1934 (Bei caixianghuaqiao), October 3, 1939.

“Xinmen wai shenshang qing pu malu,” Shenbao, September 30, 1907 .

“Ximen wai qian zhong zhulu wenti,” Shenbao, March 26, 1908.

“Gongchengju jiejue jiu tiao luxia,” Shenbao, March 26, 1908.

“Hu dao duiyu qianzhong zhulu zhi shenzhong,” Shenbao, March 28, 1908.

Letter, Lingnan Cemetery/Guang-Zhao Cemetery/Yanjishantang to members, October 21, 1947, Q117-2-217, Shanghai Municipal Archives (hereafter, SMA).

Report, Cantonese Native-Place Association, September 27, 1950.

Letter, Cantonese Native-Place Association, October 23, 1950, Q117-2-217, SMA.

Document, Guangdong Lühu tongxianghui, n.d. [1948], Q117-2-216, SMA. See individual removal authorization forms in Q117-2-217, SMA.

Letter, Guangdong Lühu tongxianghui to members, March 17, 1948.

Letter, Guangdong tongxianghui to members, April 4, 1948, Q117-2-216, SMA.

Letter, Lingnan Cemetery Board to members, September 8, 1950.

Minutes, Lingnan Cemetery Board, September 13, 1950.

Report, Cantonese Native-Place Association, September 27, 1950, Q117-2-217, SMA.

Letter, Xi’an Cemetery to Weishengju, December 20, 1948.

Memorandum, Weishengju, 1948, Q400-1-3905, SMA.

“Lingjie lianhehui wei gongmu qianzang shijin yaoqi shi,” Shenbao, May 4, 1929.

“Shanghai shi lingjie lianhehui quanti huiyuan qi shi,” Shenbao, October 20, 1934.

Letter, Shanghai shi lingjie lianhehui, August 9, 1939, U38-5-1485, SMA.

“Zhenru qingzhen di’er bieshu zuori luocheng,” Shenbao, January 24, 1934.

“Rifang leqian huijiao gongmu,” Shenbao, October 6, 1939.

Memorandum, Jingchaju, May 11, 1945, R1-9-361, SMA.

Zhabei quzhi 闸北区志, section 27 “Minzheng” 第二十八编民政 (Civil affairs), chap. 5 第五章社会行政管理, art. 4, “Binzang” 殡葬 (Funerals).

Letter, Weishengju to mayor, October 24, 1947; Note, Weishengju, October 16, 1947, both in Q400-1-3907, SMA.

Letter, mayor to Japanese navy, April 17, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, TDJ to mayor, April 24, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, Weishengju to mayor, June 19, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Report, Weishengju to mayor, May 11, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, citizens to Weishengju, May 5, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, eighty-one citizens to Weishengju, June 16, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, 106 citizens to mayor, n.d. [June 1943].

Letter, citizens to Guomindang zhongyang zhixing weiyuanhui, n.d. [transferred on June 28, 1943 to the Shanghai mayor].

Letter, citizens to mayor, June 8, 1943; Letter, citizens to mayor, June 14, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, citizens to SZF, June 28, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, mayor to Weishengju, August 26, 1943, R1-9-284, SMA.

Letter, Weishengju to mayor, March 22, 1944, R1-9-284, SMA.

Report, Weishengju, n.d. [November 1949], B242-1-226, SMA.

S Elliston, Shantung Road Cemetery, Shanghai, 1846–1868: With Notes about Pootung Seamen’s Cemetery [and] Soldiers’ Cemetery(Shanghai: Millington?, 1946).

Zheng Zu’an, “Shandong lu gongmu de bianqian” [The vicissitudes of the Shandong Road Cemetery], Dang’an yu lishi [Archives and history], no. 6 (2001): 72.

Notification, Minzhengju, October 28, 1953, B1-2-840, SMA.

Letter, Renmin zhengfu waishichu to Waijiaobu, July 21, 1953, B1-2-840, SMA.

Letter, Gongyong shiye guanliju to all concerned units, May 26, 1959.

“Shili luwan gongmu qianzang jihua,” May 21, 1959, B257-1-1500, 34, SMA.

Xu Dabiao 徐大標 and Xu Runliang 徐潤良, “Shanghai binzangye yu baoxing binyiguan" 上海殯葬業與寶興殯儀館, Shanghai difang zhi 上海地方誌, no. 3 (1999).

Shanghai tongzhi 上海通志 (Shanghai gazetteer), vol. 43 Shehui shenghuo 社会生活 (Social life), chap. 7 “Bingzang” 殡葬 (Funerals), chap. 17 “Binzang guanli” 殡葬管理 (The management of funerals), art. 2 “Sheshi he fuwu” 設施與服務 (Installations and services).

“The Dead Edge Out the Living” 死人挤活人, by Jiang Fan 江帆. NIH/U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Katherine Verdery, The Political Lives of Dead Bodies (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999).

Sarah Tarlow, Bereavement and Commemoration: An Archaeology of Mortality (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999).

Robert Pogue Harrison, The Dominion of the Dead (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003).

Natacha Aveline-Dubach, ed., Invisible Population: The Place of the Dead in East Asian Megacities (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012).

Thomas M. Laqueur, The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015).

Andrew B. Kipnis, “Governing the Souls of Chinese Modernity,” Hau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 7, no. 2 (2017): 217-238.

Elizabeth Kenworthy Teather, "The Case of the Disorderly Graves: Contemporary Deathscapes in Guangzhou," Social and Cultural Geography 2, no. 2 (2001): 185-202.

Zahra Newby and Ruth Toulson, ed., The Materiality of Mourning: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2018).

Fu Xiaowei, “Societal Knowledge Disputes Found in Zhoukou’s Funeral Reform Campaign[周口平坟中的社会知识分歧],” Changjiang ribao, November 27, 2012

“Zhoukou Funeral Reforms Challenge ‘Beautify China’ Political Campaign[周口平坟复耕考验美丽中国],” Qiaobao, November 24, 2012.

“Zhoukou, Henan Initiates Large-Scale Funeral Reform Campaign, Relocates 2 Million+ Graves [河南周口开展大规模平坟复耕 迁坟200多万座],” Tengxun xinwen, November 4, 2012.

“Account of Zhoukou’s Funeral Reforms [周口平坟复耕记],” Shandong kejibao, December 3, 2012.

Ba Fuqiang, “In Zhuji Village, Shangshui County, Officials Solve Funeral Reform Issues with ‘Harmonious’ Solutions [商水县朱集村:和协破解平坟复耕难题],” Henan ribao nongcunban, August 8, 2012.

Meng Xiangchao, “Proof of Grave Digging Required for Officials to Go to Work in Fugou County, Zhoukou [周口扶沟县干部上班凭平坟证明],” Xinjingbao, November 23, 2012.

“Zhoukou Funeral Reform Campaign Also Differentiates between Government Officials and Civilians [周口平坟也官民有别],” Jinan shibao, November 27, 2012.

Ye Biao, “Account of Zhoukou’s Funeral Reforms [周口平坟复耕记],” Nanfang zhoumo, November 22, 2012.

“Zhoukou Uses Farmland for Graves after Grave Relocation, Charges Owners Fees for Resettlement [周口平坟后又圈占耕地建公墓 向迁坟户收墓穴费],” Wangyi xinwen, December 5, 2012.

Funeral reform progress from the Zhoukou government (周口市殡葬改革工作简报 Zhoukoushi binzanggaige gongzuo jianbao).

Meng Xiangchao, “Proof of Grave Digging Required for Officials to Go to Work in Fugou County, Zhoukou.”

Ye, “Account of Zhoukou’s Funeral Reforms.”

Wang Xinghe, “Biggest Failure in Zhoukou’s Funeral Reforms Was to Skip Court Jurisdictions [周口平坟跳过法院是程序败笔],” Jiancha ribao, November 23, 2012.

“Zhoukou Funeral Reform Campaign Also Differentiates between Government Officials and Civilians,” Jinan shibao, November 27, 2012.

“Zhoukou’s Funeral Reforms Accused of Forcefully Increasing Land for Business-Use, Local Officials Refuse to Respond; Villagers Confirm That Officials Built Public Cemeteries around Own Ancestral Graves [周口平坟被指为增加商业用地当地无回应,另有村民证实厅官祖坟圈入公墓],” Lanzhou chenbao, November 27, 2012.

Zhang Liwei, “Local Funeral Reforms Should Not Be Violently Executed [地方平坟运动不应过于粗暴],” Shiji jingji baodao, November 27, 2012.

Ye, “Account of Zhoukou’s Funeral Reforms.”

Meng, “Proof of Grave Digging Required for Officials to Go to Work in Fugou County, Zhoukou.”

Yang Yi, “Changsha Resident’s Ancestral Grave Removed Without Consent, Grave Digger Claims It Was for Road Construction [长沙市民未被告知祖坟被迁走 挖墓者称迁坟是为修路],” Fazhi wang, April 1, 2013.

走基层: 南水北调. 移民搬迁拆房难迁坟更难, May 31, 2012, broadcast.

“Feng Zhanhai, a Famed Soldier from the Sino-Japanese War Faces Destruction of His Grave Descendants: Property Developers Should’ve At Least Told Us about Grave Relocation [抗日名将冯占海墓碑被推倒 家属:开发商至少应该通知我们迁坟],” Dushi shibao, October 9, 2010.

Wang Jing, “Netizen Uploads Video Showing Army General’s Grave Being Destroyed, Reporter Finds On-Site Worker Who Claimed It Was a Mistake during Grave Relocation [有网友公布将军墓被毁视屏,记者碾转找到当时施工的工人得知—— 工人迁坟时 误挖将军墓],” Chengshi wanbao, October 9, 2010.

Gao Jian, “388 Martyrs’ Graves Will Be Relocated to Shengshuiyu [388座零散烈士墓将统迁圣水峪],” Beijing xinwen, November 4, 2013.

Hu Wenfeng, “772 Martyrs’ Graves in Lai’an County Find ‘New Home’ [来安772座零散烈士墓迁“新家”],” Zhongan zaixian, April 1, 2012.

“Thirty Thousand Graves Relocated in Exchange for Approximately Ten Thousand Mu of Land [迁坟三万座腾地近万亩],” Zhongguo huanjingbao, February 24, 2006.

Tang Guanhua, “Report on Grave Relocation Complaints Related to the ‘Sangzhi County Story’ Project Development [“桑植故事”项目迁坟选址信访事项的情况调查],” Sangzhixian fengyuanzhen renminzhengfu wang, March 19, 2012.

Real Estate Price Information for “Sangzhi Story.”

“Nanfeng, Jiangxi Forces Relocation of More Than a Thousand Graves [江西南丰强制迁坟一千余座],” Sohu, October 31, 2010.

Jia Jingwei, “Designated Grave Resettlement Location Accused of Being a For-Profit Business, Nanning ‘Changshengling Cemetery’ Deemed Illegal [迁坟安置点被指对外经营 南宁常胜岭墓园乃非法],” Guangxi xinwenwang, April 16, 2012.

Tang Yuke, “Du’an County Relocated Graves Find Difficulties in ‘Resettlement’ [都安540座迁坟遭遇落户难],” Hechi wang, December 21, 2011.

Zeng Hao and Yang Jing, “Villagers Earn up to 100,000 RMB Per Family From ‘Grave Relocation Service Fees’” [“迁坟劳务费”村民一户能赚10万], Dongfang weibao, March 5, 2008.

Dong Wanyu, “Grave Owners Scam Grave Relocation Compensation Fees at Huangjinshan Public Cemetery [有人骗领黄金山迁坟补偿款],” Yangzi wanbao, March 21, 2008.

Zhao Wen, “Village CCP Secretary Scams Millions of RMB as ‘Grave Relocation Fees’ [图文:村支书冒领迁坟款敛财百万元],” Chutian jinbao, September 9, 2010.

Zhao Wen, “Village CCP Secretary Scams Millions of RMB as ‘Grave Relocation Fees’ [村支书冒领迁坟款敛财百万元],” Chutian jinbao, September 9, 2010.

Luo Jianan and Liu Taijin, “Xijian County Village Director Jailed for Pocketing Grave Relocation Compensation Fees [侵占迁坟补偿款新建县一村主任获刑],” Jiangxi fazhibao, March 17, 2010.

Zhang Weixian, “Citizens Respond Positively to Grave Relocation Campaign, Bring Life Back to Dunhuang’s Mogao Caves [市民响应号召迁坟 敦煌莫高窟保护区焕生机]” Zhongguo wenwubao, March 31, 2006.

Susan Greenhalgh, Just One Child: Science and Policy in Deng’s China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).